What is Electronic Voting Machine and how does it work? An Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) is an electronic device that is used for recording votes. EVMs were actually used as a replacement for ballot papers. which were used earlier.
Perhaps many of you have also used EVMs to vote. But do you know what exactly is this Electronic Voting Machine and how does it work?
That’s why today I thought that why you should be provided complete information about what is an electronic voting machine and how it is used, which will make it easier for you to understand it better. So without delay let’s start.
What is an Electronic Voting Machine (EVM)?
The full form of EVM is Electronic Voting Machine. It is a machine through which a voter can give his vote to any political party. In this machine, separate buttons are appointed for different representatives, on which there is also the symbol of that party. And all these are connected through a cable with the electronic ballot box.
An EVM consists of two units — the control unit and the balloting unit — both of which are connected to each other via a five-meter cable. When a voter presses a button that belongs to a candidate, then the machine locks itself.
In such a situation, a new ballot number is required to open the EVM. Otherwise, it cannot be opened. This ensures that EVMs ensure that a person can vote only once.
History of EVM Machine – What is Electronic Voting Machine
In 1980, M.B.Haneefa first invented the Indian Voting Machine, which was named gazetted “Electronically Operated Vote Counting Machine”, at that time.
The original design made by him was first exhibited to the public. EVMs were officially commissioned in about six major cities of the country. By the Election Commission of India in 1989, it collaborated with Bharat Electronics Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited at that time. The industrial designers of the EVMs were the faculty members of the Industrial Design Center of IIT Bombay.
The EVM machine was first used in India in a by-election in Kerala, after that, it was used on an experimental basis in selected areas of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi.
Whereas EVMs were first used in Goa’s general election (entire state) in 1999. At the same time, by 2003, EVMs were used in all by-elections and state elections. Later in 2004, the Election Commission decided to use EVMs in the Lok Sabha elections.
EVM machine information – What is Electronic Voting Machine
Let us now know that some special features of EVM, about which you may not know.
1. It is absolutely tamper-free and it is also very easy to operate.
2. It has been programmed in such a way that once you vote in it, you cannot give the same vote to the same candidate as much as you want. The program controlling the operation of the control unit is destroyed in the microchip "on a one-time programmable basis". Once destroyed, it cannot be read, copied, or modified.
3. The microchip in it has been designed in such a way that once it is programmed, it is used for only one task. Neither any change can be brought in it, nor can any copy be done in it. Therefore it is very secure from the point of view of security.
4. The chances of invalid votes in EVM machines are very less.
5. In this, the calculation process is faster and at the same time the printing cost is reduced.
6. Since the EVM machine is powered by battery, it can be easily used in areas without electricity.
7. If the number of candidates does not exceed 64, then elections can be held using EVMs in such places.
8. An EVM can register a maximum of 3840 votes in the machine.
Voting machine video – What is Electronic Voting Machine
Below you will find a video. This video, about the Electronic Voting Machine being used right now.
What is the design and technology of EVM?
An EVM mainly consists of two units, the control unit, and the balloting unit. Both these units are joined via a five-meter cable.
Where the balloting unit is mainly used by the voter. The control unit is used to control the ballot units through the labeled buttons for voting. It stores the voting counts and finally displays the results in a 7 segment LED display.
The controller used in EVMs has its own operating program which is permanently etched. During its manufacturing in silicon, no one, even the manufacturer, can change the program once the controller is manufactured by the manufacturer.
EVMs are powered by an ordinary 6 volt alkaline battery, which is manufactured by Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore and Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad. Therefore, EVMs of this design can be used anywhere in the country where there is no power supply facility.
Electronic Voting Machine design and technology
An EVM can record a maximum of 3840 votes and can handle a maximum of 64 candidates. However, there is a provision for only 16 candidates in a single balloting unit and a maximum of 4 units can be connected in parallel.
Where the number of candidates exceeds 64, the conventional ballot paper/box method is used for polling. In this, a candidate cannot give more than one vote, however many times he wants to press that voting button. As soon as a candidate presses a particular button in the balloting unit, then that vote is automatically recorded for that particular candidate and then the machine gets locked automatically.
Therefore, whenever a button is pressed after that, then no vote record is held for the same candidate. Similarly, EVMs ensure that the principle of “one person, one vote” is maintained.
Which big personality is behind the development of Electronic Voting Machine?
Two personalities were mainly behind the complete development of these Electronic Voting Machines, they are S. Rangarajan and T. N. Swamy.
Why are voting machines used in India?
These electronic voting machines are being used in India since 1999. By the way, the use of EVM also means to move away from paper ballots, and in this way about lakhs of trees are being prevented from being cut.
It is making the entire voting process easy, in this just one button has to be pressed and your vote gets registered.
If we think about the use of EVMs in the long run, then it is going to prove to be very cost-effective. Although its initial cost was a bit high, around Rs 5,000 to 6,000 for each machine, although it has been used comfortably for about 15 years.
These machines do not require electricity to run and they can run in batteries. At the same time, these EVMs are very lighter and portable if we compare them with big ballot boxes.
Apart from this, the vote-counting process has become very fast due to the use of EVMs, where vote counting used to take several days, whereas now votes are counted in a few hours.
How to use electronic voting machine?
Using EVM is very easy task. In this, the control unit of EVM is with the presiding officer or polling officer of the booth. Whereas the balloting unit is placed inside the voting compartment. That balloting unit has blue buttons and is labeled horizontally in front of the corresponding party symbol and their name.
At the same time, the Control Unit provides a facility to the officer in-charge of that booth by which he controls a “Ballot” marked button so that the next voter can go in to vote. Where earlier a ballot paper was issued.
This means that it allows the ballot unit to vote next. Those who used to stand in the queue. In this, the voter has to press the blue button in front once to cast his vote. In that balloting unit and for this, they can take the help of the candidate and their symbol located in front.
As soon as a voter casts his vote, the Polling Officer in-charge presses the ‘Close’ button of that Control Unit. Due to this, the EVM is locked, before the next vote is taken, after the next poll is closed, the balloting unit is disconnected. From the control unit and they are kept separately. Votes are recorded by the Balloting Unit.
What is Electronic Voting Machine?
When the polling is over, the Presiding Officer provides an account of the votes to all the polling agents located in that booth for counting. When the votes are being counted, then the total votes are collected and if there is any discrepancy, then those counting agents bring that mistake to the presiding officer.
By the way, during the counting of votes, the results can be easily displayed through the ‘Result’ button. By the way, there are two safeguards by which the ‘Result’ button can be prevented from being pressed, until the vote counting officially starts.
(a) This button cannot be pressed until the ‘Close’ button is pressed by the Polling Officer in-charge of the same polling booth.
(b) This button is kept hidden and sealed; And this seal is opened only in the counting center in the presence of everyone in the designated office.
Advantages of Electronic Voting Machine
Now let’s know about some advantages of EVM.
- Although the initial cost of EVMs is a bit high but if we think for the long term then they are very cost effective.
- With its use, many trees have been prevented from being cut, which were used for the ballot system.
- Battery is used in this, so it can be used anywhere.
- It is very light so it can be carried anywhere easily.
- It does not cost much to use as compared to Ballot Voting.
- In this it is very easy to count votes and soon.
- Illiterate people can use it much better.
- In this, the chances of voting manipulation are very less and problems like theft are also less.
Glitch in Electronic Voting Machine
In the year 2009, BJP’s political leader L K Advani first raised questions regarding the security features of electronic voting machines. Later Subramanian Swamy filed a petition in the Delhi High Court in which he challenged the current form of EVMs and its use. By the way, the court did not do much on this subject nor did it give any instructions to the Election Commission.
Subramanian Swamy then approached the Supreme Court in October 2013 whereby he decided that the Election Commission will now use Voter-Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPATs) which will be linked with EVMs in a phased manner and will be fully implemented by 2019. will be brought in.
When VVPAT was introduced (EVM and VVPAT)
Since many political parties have raised their fingers on the EVMs being tamper-proof, the Election Commission is going to launch an advanced version of the EVM very soon before the 2019 elections.
According to reports, these new advanced EVMs have been developed in such a way that they will stop working if someone tries to tamper with them. These new M3 EVMs will have their own Public Key Interface (PKI)-based mutual authentication between different EVM units so that they can identify a genuine unit, in their field so that only genuine EVMs can be allowed communication. to within the network.
By the way, these EVMs too, will often remain the same if we talk about operation then. There may just be some technologically visible advancement in this.
When was the Electronic Voting Machine first used? Electronic Voting Machine was first used in the state of Kerala in 1982.
Where was the Electronic Voting Machine first used? First use of Electronic Voting Machine No. 70 was done in Parvur assembly constituency, Kerala.
What we learned today ?
I hope you must have liked my article What is Electronic Voting Machine (EVM). It has always been my endeavor to provide information about EVM machine to the readers so that they do not have to search any other sites or internet in the context of that article.
This will also save their time and they will also get all the information in one place. If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then you can write low comments for this.
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